In order to manage groundwater carefully, we must first understand it. How much is there? Where is it and where does it flow from and to? Is it good quality water? Groundwater in the Oldman watershed is complex and is not well understood yet because there has been limited monitoring and research. Two major groundwater studies the Willow Creek Watershed and the Crowsnest River Watershed illustrate the critical need for increased groundwater monitoring for managing this important resource.